英文ニュース

Word & Brown General Agency が翻訳サービスを開始

Word & Brown General Agency は、カリフォルニアの仲介業者向けの翻訳サービスを開始したことを発表しました。これにより、ブローカーは小規模のクライアントに対して中国語や韓国語、スペイン語、ベトナム語などで見積もりや情報提供をできるようになります。雇用者のプレゼンや従業員の登録ワークシートの両方で翻訳サービスを利用できます。





 カリフォルニアはさまざまな文化が混在する州なので、雇用者や従業員に対する保険補償範囲を明確に理解できるものにすることが重要です。クライアントにとって理解しやすい形で情報を提供することにより、関係者全員が利益を得ることができます。 Affordable Care Actの施行により、雇用主や個人が自分たちに合った健康保険に移る傾向がさらに強まります。そのため、仲介業者にとっては事業拡大と新規顧客獲得という大きなチャンスになるかもしれません。しかしそれをがっちり掴むには、適切なツールと情報を使いこなさなければなりません。





 新しい翻訳事業は、英語を主要言語としないコミュニティーや職場をターゲットにしたい仲介業者をサポートします。仲介業者の顧客維持と拡大を補助するサービスは、Word & Brownのさまざまな事業の中で最も新しいものです。同社は産業で望まれている製品やサービスを提供し続けることを目標としています。同社の製品ライン、革新的な販売ツール、最先端の見積もりシステムは翻訳サービスの追加によりさらにパワーアップします。同社のサポートがあれば、仲介業者は他の競争相手を一掃できるかもしれません。





 Word & Brown General Agencyは約30年間、保険会社や技術リーダとして認知されてきただけに、翻訳市場への参入は驚くべきことであり、翻訳業界に激震をもたらしています。

Changes in influenza epidemic type in the past three years in the Matsumoto region



This a study of the epidemiologic and etiological data of the seasonal influenza epidemic for the past three years in the Matsumoto region. AH1pdm 2009 reappeared during 2013 / 2014 and type B Yamagata lineage epidemic continued from the early stage of this period. The antibody prevalence survey implemented by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases for the vaccine strain before the start of the epidemic season showed that the affected age group was the lower age group which prominently matched the high sensitivity group for both type A and type B. This is suspected to be a reflection of the infiltration impact due to the epidemic of AH3 subtype, type B Victoria lineage and Yamagata lineage during the large scale epidemic of AH1pdm 2009 in the past. In addition, there is a clear difference in the epidemic scale, pattern and type occurring in clinics and elementary schools for each period. It is considered that continuously collecting information from the local medical institutions and facilities, and distributing this information will be useful in the close and careful treatment of influenza.



2013年に松本市周辺で流行した手足口病の疫学的・臨床的特徴
2013年夏、長野県松本市周辺では2年ぶりに手足口病が大流行した。当院での流行は第25週(6/17〜)から始まり、第28週(7/8〜)にピークを向かえ、第52週までに250名が受診した。シーズンの途中から手足口病の臨床症状が変化した印象があったため、原因ウイルスを検索したところ、血清型はエンテロウイルス71型(EV71)の単独流行からEV71に加えてコクサッキーウイルスA群6型(CA6)が検出され、結局両者の混合流行となった。さらに、両ウイルスによる手足口病の疫学的および臨床的特徴を比較したところ、CA6による手足口病はEV71に比べ、罹患年齢が低く、発熱を伴いやすく、また皮疹の性状や分布も異なっていた。新たな臨床像や疫学的特徴を有する手足口病の出現は、日常診療の貴重な情報として有用であるだけではなく、エンテロウイルスの持つ多様性を再認識する貴重な機会となった。

NuPathe社のスマトリプタン経皮投与式パッチ「Zecuity」がFDA承認されました

Zecuity(previously referred to as zelrix) which is a disposable, battery-driven patch that delivers sumatriptan transdermally was approved by FDA for the treatment of hemicrania. The effect is alleviation of migraine and MRN (migraine related nausea).

The approval of Zecuity is based on results of phase III trials in which eight hundred patients participated. Zecuity proved its effectiveness and safety in treatment of migraine and alleviation of cardinal symptoms.

主に神経や精神障害を対象に薬剤開発を行っているヌーパス社が、成人の偏頭痛治療に用いる経皮パッチ「Zecuity」のFDA承認を獲得しました。

Zecuityはスマトリプタンを経皮浸透させる電池式パッチであり、上腕に貼りボタンを押すことで胃腸管を経由せずに投与を行います。4時間の投与の間にはマイクロプロセッサによって皮膚抵抗がモニターされ、その結果に応じて投与量が調整されます。この技術を実用すれば、それまでの大掛かりなイオン導入法を簡易なパッチ法で代替できるようになります。

過活動膀胱への適応薬としてボトックス(A型ボツリヌス毒素)がFDA承認を受けました

The use of Botox in treatment for overactive bladder was approved by FDA.

The disease causes bladder contractions without warning, leading to incontinence, strong desire to void, and urinary frequency.

The administration of Botox makes the bladder muscle relaxes, improving the urine retention capacity and reducing the number of involuntary losses of urine. When injecting Botox into bladder muscle, the use of cystoscopy allows a surgeon to create a visualization of the inside of the bladder.

ボトックスは尿失禁の回数を著しく減少させることが確認されているため、FDA承認によって過活動膀胱治療の選択肢が大きく広がることになります。

過活動膀胱症状を呈する患者約千人を対象に臨床試験が行われ、ボトックスの安全性と有効性が実証されました。同試験で確認された副作用には尿路感染や、痛みを伴う尿排泄、残尿感などがあります。尿路感染を防ぐためには、ボトックスを膀胱へ注入する前に抗生物質を投与する必要があります。

グラクソスミスクライン(GSK)がグルカゴン様ペプチド1(GLP-1)受容体作動薬「Albiglutide」をFDAに承認申請しました

GlaxoSmithKline has filed a regulatory application for its self-developed drug called albigultide with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

The new medicine, which is administered once-weekly, is a glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist. The peptide GLP-1 stimulates insulin-producing cell which is pivotal for stabilizing blood glucose levels after eating - patients with diabetes cannot properly secrete this peptide. Albiglutide restores capability of insulin production in diabetic patients, using two substances similar to GLP-1.

Albiglutideは現時点で2型糖尿病や他疾患への適応が認められていません。既に販売されている他のGLP-1受容体作動薬にはブリストル・マイヤーズ スクリブ社(Bristol-Myers Squibb)のバイエッタ(Byetta)Bydueon、ノボ ノルディスク社のビクトーザ(Victoza)があります。

GSKは別の新薬の年内申請も見込んでおり、数ヵ月以内にはEU(欧州連合)でのAlbiglutide申請も行う予定です。自社の高い研究開発力とマーケティング力を示しています。

さらにHIV治療薬の「dolutegravir」や、肺疾患(喘息など)治療薬の「Relvar」と「Anoro」、メラノーマ治療薬の「trametinib」と「dabrafenib」に関しても申請書提出の準備が整っています。また、治験段階にある「Darapladib」と「MAGE-A3」はそれぞれ心疾患と癌に対する画期的な治療薬として期待されています。

執刀医の合図を認識して医用画像を表示する新医療機器

There is a possibility in the future that surgeons would operate on patients using a computer which can recognize their hand motions as commands and display medical images as intended.

If this technology becomes a reality, Surgeons can check medical pictures and records without stepping away from the surgical bed to work a keyboard or mouse. This can improve the surgical efficacy and decrease the risk of infection.

The potential system will use depth-sensing cameras and complex algorithms to recognize hand motions as orders to display MRI images.

One particular challenge is to make the computer identify differences between commanding gestures versus surgical or involuntary motions. The potential system will determine motion’s context by detecting the position and movement of the surgeon’s body including eye orientation, and assess the surgeon’s intention for medical images.


warfarinを代替する新薬「Eliquis」

The FDA has approved the new blood thinner “Eliquis” for use in preventing stroke in people with auricular fibrillation [AF].

AF is the most representative of irregular heartbeat and inflicts suffering on many people. Patients with AF are about five times more prone to a stroke. Eliquis is approved only for use in people with AFib who have no problem with cardiac valve. People with prosthetic cardiac valves must avoid taking Eliquis.

In its approval, the FDA referred to a clinical study of Eliquis in more than 18,000 people with AF. The results showed that stroke rates in people who took Eliquis twice a day are 21% lower than those with warfarin.

AF increases the risk of stroke because if the heart doesn’t maintain normal cardiac output, blood can accumulate in the heart and become more likely to form clots. Thrombus formation in the heart can cause a cerebral stroke if a blood clot travels to the brain. Anticoagulant agents lower the risk of having a stroke by helping to prevent the formation of blood clots.

Eliquis has become the third new blood thinner, following Pradaxa and Xarelto, to be approved as an alternative agent to warfarin. Eliquis are easier to take and are believed to be safer than warfarin.

Regular blood testing is needed for people with warfarin, because the risk of severe bleeding is increased by using the agent.

遺伝子ではなく細胞の構成分子と環境に着目し、2型糖尿病の発生機序を解明する

Although many researchers have been looking to uncover the genetic basis of disease and how mutations in DNA may have impacts on human health, one research group is studying the metabolizing system of cells and their surrounding tissue, to understand ways in which certain diseases occur. This method, which also uses computer models, might be applicable in Type 2 diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases, etc.

Scientists have released findings of a study of Type 2 diabetes that identify changes in cellular metabolism as the contributor for the disease, rather than genetic mutation. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease in which glucose levels are elevated. It affects a number of people, especially the people who stay at overweight status. This discovery can become a basic model for preventing and curing Type 2 diabetes.

The current study stands on a previous groundbreaking finding which determined the identity of the molecular building blocks which are essential for building the four types of macromolecules of each cell. These include innate macromolecules such as DNA and RNA, their encoded proteins, and the acquired one such as glycans and lipids.

By studying the four essential biological compounds that construct a cell, the mechanism of the common grievous diseases which occur in the absence of distinct genetic variation, but, instead, are due to environmental and metabolic condition in cell level, is beginning to be clarified.

未熟児の生存率とCPAP装置による酸素供給の関係

 

By the time they started to toddle, infants born prematurely and treated with higher oxygen levels may have benefits when compared to ones treated with lower oxygen levels. Furthermore, infants treated with a respiratory therapy commonly prescribed for adults with sleep apnea fared as well as those who received the traditional therapy for infant respiratory difficulties, the new study found.


A follow-up study found that Infants treated with higher oxygen therapy were more likely to survive, although they were at higher risk of an eye disease that can impair vision or lead to vision loss.


Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) which is used to cope with obstructive sleep apnea, was as effective as normal therapy.


A research team examined the children's growth, comparing their survival rates and cognitive and motor development 18 to 22 months after their original birth. Researchers compiled the study results and considered these as a combined primary outcome. The reason of selecting this outcome was that infants who died within 18 months after delivery could not be classified as having a developmental impairment in the nervous system.


In terms of this outcome, Researchers didn’t find any differences among the babies. But they observed higher survival rates among ones treated with highly saturated oxygen.

 

結核菌に対する新しい抗生物質「Sirturo」

FDA has approved a new tuberculosis medication “Sirturo” for the first time in four decades, which is used as part of combination therapy for patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.

FDA informed that the new drug will be used with combination of traditional ones to treat severe TB which doesn’t respond well to other alternatives and that since
it has potential risks of provoking lethal heart problems, medical stuff should prescribe it with great caution.

Two main antibiotics
isonazid” and “rifampin” prescribed for TB are not effective against multi-resistant TB, but Sirturo is designed specifically for targeting the strains.

TB is an infection caused by Mycobacterium, and be transmitted among humans through the air. It is notorious for producing serious symptoms.

According to a report, the number of patients with TB worldwide in 2011 was about nine million.

Sirturo inhibits the enzyme which enables Mycobacterium to replicate inside the human body.

Nine patients treated with Sirturo in a clinical study died, compared to two on placebo. But under the new accelerated approval system, the FDA made Sirturo available. In this case, the agency made the decision based on promising preliminary data.

Sirturo was also granted as an orphan drug. The medication has the potential to meet a medical need of patients with a rare disease and show the potential to be a safe and effective drug which cannot be replaced by alternatives.