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Disagreements about the presence or absence of each CT findings were resolved by the decision of the third radiologist.

CT images for lung disease were scored by the nearest of 10% of the cross-sectional area in each zone.

The pleural disease, comprising both pleural plaque and diffuse pleural thickening, was scored in each zone by the maximum extent compared to the circumference of hemithorax at the level of tracheal carina as: 1=less than one-quarter, 2=more than one-quarter and less than one-half, 3=more than one-half and less than three-quarters, 4=more than three quarters.
胸膜プラークとびまん性胸膜肥厚の両方を呈する胸膜疾患に関しては、気管分岐部の位置における半胸郭の周径と比べた最大範囲をもとに各領域でスコアリングを行い、1= 4分の1未満、2= 4分の1以上および2分の1未満、3= 2分の1以上および4分の3未満、4= 4分の3以上とした。びまん性胸膜肥厚と円形無気肺の有無についても評価を行った。

The presence of subpleural dot-like capacity, subpleural curvilinear lines only a few millimeters from the pleural surface, subpleural consolidation without traction bronchiectasis (atelectatic induration), and mosaic perfusion were CT findings favoring asbestosis, while extensive honeycomb cysts, severe traction bronchiectasis with architectural distortion, absence of pleural disease were regarded as favoring an alternative diagnosis.

In early asbestosis, the fibrosing process is limited to the walls of alveoli immediately around the bronchioles.

Two radiologists independently reviewed the images without knowledge of pathological diagnosis and occupational history, but with knowledge of age and sex of the patient.

It should be noted that fibrosis in asbestosis is accompanied by very little inflammation, and fibroblastic foci are infrequent.

In the advanced stage, however, a variety of morphologic patterns may be seen, such as UIP, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia(NSIP) and even an unclassifiable pattern can be identified.

Asbestos body count was performed by experienced technicians in one of the institutions participating in this study.

The method on counting asbestos bodies is detailed elsewhere. Briefly, one specimen was sampled from each lobe and trimmed so that the weight of the wet lung totaled to between 1 and 2g.

In the autopsy cases, one sample was excised, avoiding the tumor. The specimens were mixed and allowed to react with laboratory bleach

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